According to the statistical data of the NBS, in the republic, during 2014, 1830985.3 tons of different waste flows, including municipal ones, were generated. Of this amount, over 83% were deposited in landfills, or 24% less than in 2013. At the same time, there was also a significant reduction in waste generated compared to 2013 by 27.1% and by 39.0%, compared to from the year 2005.
The amount of waste generated during 2014 by the 35 administrative-territorial public authorities it differs significantly from municipality to municipality, from one district to another. The largest amount generated per republic belongs to Făleşti district, which reached 269220.0 tons, or 3390.2 tons less than the previous year. Among the municipalities, the largest amount of waste was produced in the municipality of Chisinau, 267,269.0 tons, or 44,243.3 tons less than in 2013. The highest percentage of waste generated in the rural area was recorded in the Falesti district , followed by Anenii Noii (144094.2), Hincesti (140736.8), Edineţ (139125.6), Criuleni (125597.8) and Drochia (120860.8) districts.
The rural waste generated differs from one locality to another. During the previous year, 50% in the districts reduced the amount of waste generated. For example, if the Basarabeasca district generated 656,264.1 tons in 2013, then in 2014 the amount was reduced to 18,180.2 tons, a figure closer to reality. There were also essential reductions in the waste generated compared to the previous year in the districts of Briceni (-55872.7), Căuşeni (-33585.1), Criuleni (67227.8), Donduşeni (78715.6), Edineţ (66159, 6) etc. In the rural area, the lack of public sanitation services and primary evidence of waste generation makes it impossible to draw up accurate and timely household waste statistics. Regrettably, once again the information presented to the NBS does not correspond to reality. Due to the lack of records and control on the part of the authorities empowered in this field, some districts did not present the requested information according to the provisions of the legislative-normative acts in force. It is also unbelievable that Dubăsari district, with 14 localities and a population of 35,200 inhabitants, did not generate a single kg of waste during 2014, or Nisporeni district, which has 40 localities, 23 town halls and stretches over an area of 62,901.61 ha, with a population of 66,800 inhabitants, generated a total of only 312.9 tons of waste.
The quantities of waste generated and taken into account in the NBS statistical form may not correspond to the actual ones in the territory due to the non-presentation of the forms established by the NBS. For example, in the Teleneşti district, out of 14 mandatory indicators, only three were presented, in the Căuşeni district – four, in the rest of the districts six and more.
Another indicator of the national statistics regarding the formation of waste refers to the amount removed to landfills. In total, during 2014, 1522431.3 tons, or 83.1% of the generated amount, were stored in landfills. The largest amounts of municipal waste, which ended up in landfills, were recorded in Chisinau municipality (570424.0), Glodeni district (213126), Făleşti (202145.2), Hincesti (69434.4), Bălţi (73243.2) tons etc.
Regarding the formation of toxic waste, we inform you of the following. During 2014, 682.02 tons of toxic waste were generated, or 44,811 tons less than in 2013. The largest amounts generated occurred in the Ialoveni district and the municipalities of Chisinau and Bălţi, simultaneously 321.39, 182.55 and 137.06 tons. Eleven districts, or every third of them, did not generate any kg of toxic waste during the year, which is not real. Practically, in every district waste containing lead and mercury is produced, luminescent and economical lamps with mercury are thrown away, petroleum waste, chemicals and pesticides, etc. are present. The problem is not in the lack of this waste, but in its collection, control and record.
According to the statistical form, in 2014, 622211.3 tons of waste were used in the country out of the total amount generated. The largest amounts of used waste were recorded in the municipality of Chisinau (234166.5), the districts of Anenii Noi (129274.6), Hincesti (58950.4), Cimişlia (41102.7), Făleşti (40134.7) . In total, 30 municipalities and districts undertook waste utilization actions, and the districts of Cantemir, Căuşeni, Dubăsari, Nisporeni and Teleneşti did not use this method of utilization. Moreover, the options by which the waste is treated, unfortunately, are not known to the public, nor do our statistics show any interest in presenting to the public the methods of treating different categories of waste. At the same time, valorization through incineration, composting, production of biogas and biofuels at the national level is practically completely ignored, despite the fact that some methods are already practiced in the country.
Waste storage, unfortunately, is not a sensitive topic in the policy of waste management by local and central public authorities, even though they are the calling card of town halls.
The organization of waste storage is one of the basic concerns of local public authorities and territorial bodies responsible for the protection of the environment and the health of the population, but, nevertheless, there are a number of problems that have remained unsolved until now, mainly due to irrational administration of waste, as well as the lack of effective management both at the national and local level.
Resulting from the deplorable situation of the waste deposits in the country, it would be welcome if the Ministry of the Environment, together with the local public authorities at both levels, analyze how the quantities of waste that end up in storage can be reduced over time, the existing number of deposits non-compliant by closing them, as well as the urgent creation of sanitation services, the approval of taxes and the strategies that will be applied in the near future to encourage the selective collection and recycling of waste. In no. 3 of the "MD" Magazine from 2014 published the article "Evaluation of the current situation regarding waste management at the level of local authorities" (Aurelia Bahnaru), in which the situation regarding waste storage and the results of their inventory was elucidated. Three years have already passed since the last inventory of waste deposits, but no concrete changes and proposals for implementation in the territory are visible. The competent environmental bodies have inventoried 1,867 solid household waste deposits, which occupy an area of 1,345.9 ha. In these years, no warehouse was officially closed, on the contrary, four new warehouses built in the last four years were added to them.
Most of the landfills are overcrowded, not being managed by responsible persons, thus causing an expansion of the storage areas. The storage of waste continues to be carried out in a mixture, which constitutes sources of pollution and outbreaks of infections.
The table below shows the situation of waste generation and use in the Republic of Moldova in 2014.
STATISTICS OF WASTE GENERATION AND USE IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA IN 2014 (tons).
|Name of localities||Total waste generated, year 2013||Total waste generated, year 2014||(+;-; compared to 2013||Total toxic waste generated, year 2014||Total waste used,the year 2014||Total waste removed from landfills, year 2014|
|Municipality of Chisinau||311512,3||267269,0||-44243,3||182.55||234166,5||570424,0|
|Anenia Noi district||93540,8||144094,2||+50553,4||0.005||129274,6||11882,3|
|Calarasi district||4019,0||2233,6||– 1785.4||0.048||11,3||8176,4|
|Ştefan Vodă district||34096,3||30912,5||3183,8||0.400||15070,4||11393,0|
Note: More detailed information on the formation and use of waste can be found on the website of the National Bureau of Statistics.