The transition to a green economy implies the practice of an economy based on policies and investments that link economic development, biodiversity, ecosystem, climate change, health and well-being of the population in the medium and long term. These premises must be connected to each other in order to achieve sustainable development - considered the basis for the resumption of economic growth at the global level.
Although the term is called in many ways, "green economy", "green sustainable development" generally refers to an economy in which all production and consumption options are made for well-being society and the environment. In technical terms, it is an economy in which society uses resources efficiently, increasing human well-being through sustaining natural systems.
The green economy concept, implemented in more and more villages and cities around the world, is the vehicle that ensures the necessary compromise between ecological and economic objectives. This Concept was widely discussed during the International Conference "Green Sustainable Development of the Republic of Moldova", organized by the Government of the Republic of Moldova, in partnership with the United Nations Development Program and the Government of Denmark.
In the current economic conditions, in which the post-crisis effects are still being felt, the Republic of Moldova is trying to get involved as much as possible in order to find solutions that can be adopted and adapted both at the central and local level. The new economic system that is based on sustainable development will apparently become the solution for overcoming environmental, economic and social problems, also aiming at managing the crisis and its effects. In this sense, it is necessary to take measures by using appropriate policies that create conditions for the development of the economy and the eradication of poverty. Apart from non-polluting production methods, the green economy also involves the use of natural resources, energy and new technologies, in order to favor the development of the economy and the creation of new jobs.
Through this concept, it is necessary to create new sustainable consumption and production models, which do not force the ecosystem. Sustainable development requires dynamism, requires permanent changes, adaptation and research, all these elements being closely related to the preservation of the environment and the appropriate use of natural resources. To preserve the environment and preserve the benefits it offers us, the amount of newly extracted materials must be reduced. This requires changing the way goods and services are produced, including the way material resources are consumed. So, it is necessary to create the green economy. What can we do to achieve an economy based on the efficient use of resources? It is certain that we need to produce and consume in a way that would optimize the use of the resources involved. This implies the creation of production systems that generate a decrease in the amount of waste or that produce more output with less input. The productivity of resources is closely related to the economic structure of the country in question.
Current production and consumption processes do not only produce goods and services. They also produce waste (remnants from production). These can take the form of pollutants released into the environment, unused parts of materials (wood or metal), or food that is not consumed for one reason or another. The same applies to products at the end of their useful life. Some could be partially recycled or reused, while others end up in landfills, landfills or are incinerated. Given that the resources have been used for these goods and services, any part that is not used actually represents a potential economic loss as well as an environmental problem.
Europeans generated on average approximately 4.5 tons of waste per capita. About half of this amount is incorporated again into the production process. The term "circular economy" provides for a system of production and consumption, which generates losses as little as possible. In an ideal world, almost everything that would be obtained should be reused, recycled or recovered, to produce other outputs. Redesigning products and production processes could help minimize waste and transform unused quantities to obtain other resources.
The new regulations that the Ministry of the Environment will impose on economic agents in the field of waste management aim to implement a green industry. Until now, the Republic of Moldova has not managed to create a system of separate collection and recycling of waste, being functional. In this field, no investments were made for the procurement of equipment and modern installations for recycling and disassembling renewable waste (WEEE, PETs, bottles, paper, etc.), except for some private companies that develop their activity through bank loans. Thanks to these companies, an activity of collecting and recycling packaging waste is carried out, jobs are provided.
With the signing of the Association Agreement and free trade with the EU, these economic agents will have to face European requirements, by increasing production capacities, thus being put in a disadvantageous situation compared to European collectors and recyclers. The specialized central public authorities should support economic operators technically and financially, because they require some facilities in the field. In addition, they are forced to pay VAT for the collection and recycling of waste, taxes and fees for the import into the country of technical equipment and high-performance technologies in the field of waste management. In time, sanitation companies will take the monopoly over waste, as is practiced in most EU states. There will also be a situation when all those who today are active in the field of waste management will fight for the areas of influence, will follow and threaten each other for every kg of packaging waste collected.
This fight will be fought for the public money, for the funds of the town halls. Until now, the country does not pay the fee for storing waste at landfills. There will be new requirements for economic operators, who will take over the responsibilities of waste collection and recycling from waste producers. They should ensure the collection of waste from their own funds, by buying machines for transporting waste, including dangerous ones, hire specialists in the field, increase the taxes applied to the sale of the respective production, which then becomes waste. The recycling industry we have, even if it is primitive, needs support and development, a fair treatment, because an incorrect attitude or a hastily approved law will lead to the development of a black market, tax evasion and theft. The waste management strategy 2013-2027 aims to provide an intelligent, sustainable and favorable growth for social inclusion. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a package of laws regarding the green economy.